This watershed area is a true representation of the Middle hills in the protected area system. It also provides over 40% of the drinking water to the Kathmandu Valley. It has high diversity of forest types (sal, subtropical hardwood, lower slopes mixed hardwood, chir pine, oak and upper slope mixed hardwood) which occupy 39% of the land where 16 endemic plants occur.
Established in 1976, Shivapuri National Park is divided into:
- Protected area of 97.37 km 2 and
- Additional 118.64 km 2 area managed as buffer zone.
This watershed area is a true representation of the Middle hills in the protected area system. It also provides over 40% of the drinking water to the Kathmandu Valley. It has high diversity of forest types (Sal, subtropical hardwood, lower slopes mixed hardwood, chir pine, oak and upper slope mixed hardwood) which occupy 39% of the land where 16 endemic plants occur.
A total of 129 species of mushroom, 150 species of butterflies with many endemic and rare 9 species of birds which are considered endangered or vulnerable, and 19 species of mammals occur. This area is increasingly used for recreation, hiking and trekking as some 1,500 Kathmandu residents and some 3,000 non-residents visit every year. Large mammals incure substantial losses to settlements living in the buffer zone. As of now, depletion of vegetation through fuelwood, fodder and livestock grazing is considered a major threat as some 4,246 households use forest products.
Shivapuri is one of the main sources of drinking water for Kathmandu Valley. Everyday about 30 million litres of water is tapped from rivers such as Bagmati and Bishnumati as well as from several other smaller streams.
Flora and Fauna
Shivapuri lies in a transition zone between subtropical and temperate zone. The vegetation consists of a variety of natural forest types including pine, oak, rhododendron etc, depending on altitude and aspect. Recorded wildlife in the park includes mammalian species such as Himalayan Black bear, leopard, jungle cat, and rhesus monkey. The Park is also home to 177 species of birds, including 9 threatened species, 102 species of butterflies with a number of rare and endangered species, and 129 species of mushroom.
Places of Interest
The Park is easily accessible from Kathmandu. Visitors are attracted to the Park for trekking. Trekking routes to Nagarkot, Gosaikunda, Helambu and Langtang National Park also pass through this area. Several religious sites for the Hindus and the Buddhists lie inside the Park.
On Nepalese new year’s day, which falls in mid-April, pilgrims from Kathmandu valley and neighboring areas flock to Baghdwar and Bishnudwar from where the sacred rivers Bagmati and Bishnumati originate.
Visitors can have breathtaking views of the high Himalayas from the northern aspects of the Park. Likewise, the panoramic views of Kathmandu valley could be seen from the southern slopes of the Park,
Popular Trekking Destinations within the Park.
- Panimuhan, Park HQ – Shivapuri peak (12 km)
- Nagigumba – Baghdwar – Chisapani (18 km)
- Panimuhan, Park HQ – Sikre (12 km)
- Nagigumba – Shivapuri peak (6 km)
- Kakani – Shivapuri
- JhuJe – Chisapani (12 km)
- Sundarijal – chisapani (22km)